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|Genetics Basics||Types Of Genetics and Purchasing|
Basic genes for horses can be bought and viewed in various ways. Aptitude Genes can be purchased at the Geneticist under the Breeding table and will only show Surface and Distance gene ratings. This is an excellent starting point for a newer stable as they are the most affordable and give you the basic information you need for distance and surface. |
Genetic Ratings will give you the rating of each Aptitude and Performance Gene, but not the phenotype of the gene. Finally, you can purchase the full Genotype which will show the ratings and phenotype for Aptitude and Performance Genes. (The Fertility trait will also be revealed when purchasing Genetic Ratings or Genotypes, but Fertility is not hereditary.) All of these ways of gene purchasing can also be accessed via the horse’s Genetics page.
Stat Genes, Heritage and the various Supplementary Genes can be purchased via the Stable Upgrades section of the Pro Shop.
There are some genes that are permanently hidden and cannot be purchased - such as Experience.
For information on Color and Marking genes, please visit their pages: Color Genes and Marking Genes.
|Format Of Genes|
Genes exist in different formats depending on the gene in question.
Single genes exist as xx, Xx or XX. XX is referred to as Strong, Xx is referred to as Moderate and xx is referred to as Recessive. An example of a gene in this format is Surface genes.
Double genes exist as: Outstanding (XX XX), Excellent (XX Xx), Good (Xx Xx OR XX xx), Fair (Xx xx) or Poor (xx xx). For example, Performance genes exist in this manner.
Quad genes exist as: Outstanding (No recessive alleles - XXXX XXXX), Excellent (1-2 recessive alleles), Good (3-4 recessive alleles), Fair (5-6 recessive alleles), Poor (7-8 recessive alleles). Heritage is the only gene that currently exists in this manner.
|There are two surface genes - Dirt and Turf (For Thoroughbred, Goldbloods, and Stock horses) or Trot and Pace (for Standardbreds). Foundation horses (horses with unknown parents) always have at least one green (XX) surface gene. However, it is entirely possible to acquire Horse Trader, Created Goldbloods, and Imports with semi-dual preferences (XX Xx) or even fully dual (XX XX) preferences.
These genes determine how easily your horse trains on each surface and how well they maintain surface proficiency. Horses with Xx or xx genes can still run as well on a surface as a horse with XX so long as they are trained properly.
|There are two pairs of distance genes - Speed [Sp Sp] and Stamina [St St]. These determine how much speed and endurance your horse has, which determines what distance they like to race.
A horse's stats (such as Early Speed or Late Speed) do NOT determine what distance they race. A horse who has a high Early Speed stat may still have high Stamina. These genes are simply evaluating a horse's capabilities to define an ideal distance range. Stats look at their abilities when racing at the appropriate distance. Horses who have a mixture of speed and stamina genes will end up preferring something in the middle, making them Intermediates.
More Information can be found at Distance & Surface.
|This is a double gene pair that determines how well-built your horse is. A horse with low conformation genes is considered to have heavy conformational faults. Conformation determines the risk the horse is born with. Horses with good conformation sometimes develop high risk, and horses with bad conformation sometimes have virtually no risk at all. This also affects your horse's maximum potential. Excellent and Outstanding conformation will give potential a boost while Fair and Poor will lower it.||Development|
|This is a double gene pair that determines a horse's Maturity. A horse with higher development will physically mature faster, making it safer to race them at a young age. Horses who develop very slowly will not be suitable to racing at young ages, because their bodies are not physically ready to handle that much work. Recessive hh pairs contribute to Genetic Anomalies chances in breeding.||Health|
|This is a double gene pair that determines how long a horse can handle racing. Racing puts some wear and tear on a horse's body, but some can withstand that more than others. Horses with higher health will likely be able to have long racing careers, racing several years. Horses with lower health may only be able to have short careers before their soundness starts to decline. Health corresponds directly to Longevity, which is represented by number of races remaining on your horse's page. Recessive hh pairs contribute to Genetic Anomalies chances in breeding.||Intelligence|
|This is a double gene pair that determines how quickly a horse learns. This influences how likely a horse will gain stats through training and how well a horse travels away from home. A horse with low intelligence will have a much harder time gaining stats than a horse with higher intelligence. Ultimately, this can also impact at what age a horse will be ready to run (at their best).||Temperament|
|This is a double gene pair that determines the attitude of a horse. It influences Maximum Consistency and impacts how easily horses keep Morale. Horses with lower Temperament will be more inconsistent in races and training.|
|Each horse has a set of 6 stat gene pairs. One pair corresponds to each of the horse's stats and bears the same name. For example, the Breaking stat gene correlates to the Breaking stat. These genes can be viewed if you have the Stablewide Hidden Genes purchased, which can be found in the Pro Shop in the Stable Upgrades tab.|
|Relation to Potential|
|Stat genes are very important! Stat genes can be very useful for a couple of purposes. First, you can look at stat genes on a young horse and estimate what you would expect their maximum stats and potential to be. A foals parents' producer quality can positively or negatively impact their stats.|
|In normal situations, where producer quality and/or bloodline have a neutral or slightly positive impact, you should expect stats to max roughly as follows:
|A horse with entirely Excellent/Outstanding should max at 40+ potential under "normal" (neutral) circumstances. A horse with mostly Good genes will usually max somewhere around 30 potential. A horse with mostly poor/fair will typically max under 20 potential.|
|Importance in Breeding|
|Second, you can compare a horse's actual stats, once maxed, to their stat genes to get an idea of their parent's producing quality. If a horse has much lower stats than you'd expect based on genes, one or both of their parents are likely bad producers. If a horse has much higher stats than you'd expect based on genes, one or both of their parents are likely good producers.
These are arguably the most important genes your horse has because they determine the largest part of racing talent. However, not all horses will have stats that actually match up with what you'd expect from their genes. Though these genes provide a base, the final outcomes are impacted by other factors such as producer quality and bloodline.
|Stat Increase Upon Sale|
|Horses have a chance to improve their stats (overall potential, not the genes themselves) when being sold or purchased by another player. Although the stats increase, it does not impact the stat genes. This means a horse can improve upon its birth potential alongside gelding, oracle and buddyworks. Retired horses no longer gain stat improvements upon being sold or purchased.|
|Stat Genes and Steeplechase/Driving|
|Stat genes have absolutely no impact on the stats a horse earns when they are transitioned to Steeplechase (Thoroughbreds & Goldbloods) or Driving (Standardbreds). Their stats are zeroed out and rerolled solely based on a gene known as Jump or Driving. High or low stats on a SC/DT horse are also NOT indicative of flat producer quality.|
|This gene determines how easily a horse gets in foal, as well as how likely a mare is to carry a foal to term. Both parents' fertility factors in when breeding!
If a horse has low fertility, you may opt to feed one parent Vigor to guarantee the mare will get in foal. You can also give Bucket Of Love to guarantee that a mare's fertility never drops below Low. Broodmares lose fertility in July if they are not bred, with the exception of mares who are injured.
Fertility is not genetic, in other words does not pass on to foals.
|This is a quad-gene that influences how a horse passes their genes to their offspring. This is expressed as a simplified rating for horses on their genetics page, much like the rest of their genes. A horse with high Heritage is more likely to pass on dominant genes (X), while a horse with bad heritage is more likely to pass on recessive genes (x). When determining the rate of passing genes, the parents' Heritage is evaluated, not the foal's.
Heritage will not allow a horse to pass anything that they are not genetically capable of - a horse with XX cannot throw an x and a horse with xx cannot throw an X.
Although Heritage uses the standard rating system, the ratings have slightly different meanings, as listed below.
Mistweaver's Cloak also will improve Heritage genes to at least 4 heterozygous, but will not raise Heritage beyond that.
|This hidden gene determines the likelihood of having male offspring. The gender of a foal is determined by the MP gene of that foal, not its parents. A foal born with Homozygous MP is more likely to be a colt, and a foal born with recessive MP is more likely to be a filly. This is not 100% guaranteed, so it's possible to have males with recessive MP or females with Homozygous MP.||Female Influence|
|This hidden gene determines how influential a female's bloodline is on her offspring. If this is homozygous in the foal, the foal will usually follow their dam's bloodline. If it is recessive in the foal, they will usually follow their sire's bloodline.
This is never 100% guaranteed, so you cannot depend on FI to determine bloodline definitively.
This hidden gene determines a horse's likelihood of producing high potential foals. You can test for Producer Quality at the Geneticist for any horse if they meet these requirements: pensioned, at least 20 years old, and owned by their breeder. Horses without a breeder are never eligible to be tested. Producer quality applies to both mares and studs, but carries a far greater weight for studs.
Although potential could indicate a better producer, this does not always correlate with producer quality. Any horse can be a legendary producer and any horse can be a terrible producer, whether 6 or 60 potential. Potential just gives you a glimpse into the producing ability of the parents. Researching the pedigree and parents' producing information is going to be more accurate than solely looking at potential.
Select Sale horses who are Legendary producers will have their Producer Quality automatically revealed.
Heir's Crown does give you the ability to see this hidden gene.
Family Jewels also gives you the ability to see and improve this hidden gene.
Mistweaver’s Cloak will cloak and randomize a bloodtype for a horse, but also improves Producer Quality.
|This gene determines how much a horse will gain peak every month. Yearlings with low peak are ineligible for the annual Yearling Auction.
|This gene determines how many months of Prime a horse is born with. Prime is how many months a horse will stay at 100% peak once that level is reached.||Athleticism|
|Athleticism is a gene that can only be viewed on accounts with the Forever Pro upgrade. However, you can estimate a horse's athleticism by keeping track of how much energy they use when racing and/or training. Athleticism is rated by three levels: Strong, Average and Low - a horse's Athleticism is the largest factor in determining energy loss from racing and the only factor in determining energy loss from training. It also determines, alongside some other factors, energy regeneration. To learn more about determining your horse's Athleticism without an account upgrade, please refer to the energy loss chart found on the Training Help pop up page - which can also be accessed on the top of a horse's Exercise page.
Low Athleticism is undesirable as it causes a horse to use a large amount of energy for a horse to train and/or race. It can be improved to Moderate by using a pair of Blazing Horseshoes, gelding colts, or doing long gallops (which have a chance to improve Athleticism). Since Athleticism is a gene, it's also worthwhile to improve it in any horses you plan to breed who may have Low Athleticism.
|Jump & Driving|
|Jump is a gene which helps determine your horse's Steeplechase stats. It works in tandem with their hidden Steeplechase Stat Genes, and can be Above Average, Average or Below Average.
Driving is similar to Jump genes - they are just for Standardbreds (STB) and correlate to Driving Trials. It also can be Above Average, Average or Below Average.
As mentioned previously, there are hidden Stat Genes for Steeplechase and also for Driving. These genes are completely hidden, but sets a baseline for stats and work alongside the Jump or Driving gene to influence how well your horse transitions.
Purchasing Stablewide Jump Genes will reveal the Jump Gene and/or Driving Gene for all horses in your barn and all horses in the future. A Jump Standard is an item that reveals a horse's Jump/Driving Gene. It also improves it.
|This is a hidden gene that determines a horse's eligibility for Timber Steeplechase races.|